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????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????, ?? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ? ??????????????. ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????. ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????. ? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????. ???????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ? 1817 ?. ? ????? ?? ????????. ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????????? ??????????: ????????? ????????, ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ??.

?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????: ???????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ? ???????????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ?????-????????.

??????? ????????????? ?????? 30-? ??. ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????, ?? ???????????? ?????, ? ??????????, ? ?????? ????????? ?????????. ? ???? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????, ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????????.

????????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ????? ???, ????????? ????? ???? ?????????????????? ????????? ??????????: ?????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ???????????? ???????????.

????????? ??????? ?????? ????????: ??????????? ???????????? ????, ???????????? ?????, ?????????????????? ???????????. ??????????? ??????????? ???? ? ???? ?????? ? ??????. ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????; ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????.

????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????: ????????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ??????, ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????. ??????? ????????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????????. ‘??? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????. ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ????????????? ??????????? ???? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ??????????.

imagesCA2765XO?????????? ????????? ????????, ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????, ????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????. ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????. ?? ????? 10 ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????. ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????, ???????, ?????????, ????????, ???????, ????????. ????-?????, ???????, ????????? ? ?????????. ?? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????????.

? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????, ???, ??? ???????? ?? ? ??????, ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? (????). ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? .?????????? ???????????, ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????. ???? ?????? ????????????. ?????? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????-?????? ???????????? ??????.

???????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????, ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????. ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????, ??? ?????????, ???????, ???????, ??????????, ???????, ?????????? ? ??. ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ??????? ? 1 ???? 1987 ?. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????-?????????? ???????????: ?????-?????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????????. ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????????. ?????? ? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????, ? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????????. ????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????.

??? ? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????, ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????. ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????. ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????; ?? 172 ??????????? ????, ??????????? ? ??????, 134 ? ?? ???. ? ???? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????. ? ??? ????????? 71 ????????? ????????? ???????? (? ?????????????? ? 7, ? ???????? ? 6). ????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????? 100 ??????, ???????? ???????? ?????????, ? ????????? ??????? ????. ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? (?????? ????? ??? ? ??????????????) ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????????. ???, ???????? ?????-???-?????, ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ? 1986 ?. ?????????? ????? ????-?????????, ????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? (?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????). ????? 2/3 ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????. ???????? ???? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????????.

6.1. ??????????? ???? (???? ??????)

bcc???? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ??????. ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????? ????? ? ?? ????????, ? ????? ??????????. ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? 1935?1938 ??. ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????, ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????????. ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????? ????? ??????????. ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????????. ???? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ? ????? ????????????.

????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????: ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????; ??????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ???????; ???????????? ?????? ???, ?????? ???????????? ? ????????.

???? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????, ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????, ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???????.

???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????, ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ??? ???????? ????????????, ???????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????. ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ????????? ? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ? ????????.

???????? ????? ? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????. ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?? ???????? ?????, ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????.

???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?.?. ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? , ???????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????.

??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ????????. ????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????. ????? ????, ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????.

imagesCAU25W4M???????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ???????. ???????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????.

???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????-????????????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???????-????????? ???????. ???????? ??? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ???? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ???????-?????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????.

?????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? 50-? ??. ? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ? 1944, ? 1950 ? ? 1955 ??. ? ???????? ?? 1,5 ?? 2,5%.

??????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???. ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???.

llk?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ? ???????-????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????. ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? 1962 ?.

?? ?????? ???????? 60-? ??. ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????.

? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ???????? ??. ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????????.

? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ?????? ????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????. ???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????. ? 1971 ?. ???? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ? ?????????. ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????.