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5 ???????? 2013 ???? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ??????. ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????, ??????????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????, ????? ??????? ? ??????.?????? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???. ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ????? ? ????????. ??????? ???????? ???? ??????????, ??????? ?????????????, ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????, ? ????? ????????? 85 ????????? ???????? ?????, ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ? ??????. ????? ????????????? ?????, ????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ?????????, ??????? ? ???????????.

???????????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ? ???? ???????, ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????.

?? ????? ???????, ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?? 29 ????? ????, ? ???????? ?? 14 ?? 79 ???, ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ????. ?????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ? ????? ?? ?????.

????????? ?????????? (????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?????????) ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??????. ?????? ???, ????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????, ????? ?????????, ??? ?? ?????? ???, ?? ???? ???? ??????.

?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????. ????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ????? ??? ????????? ???????, ???????? ???????? ??? ???. ????? ????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????, ???????, ???????. ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ???? ? ???????????? ??????. ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ????? ? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????.

biometric -2?????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?? ????????. ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???, ??? ? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??? ??????: ???????, ???, ????????, ???? ????????, ????? ????????, ???? ??? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ????????, ? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????. ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????. ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????, ? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????.

????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? 11 ???????? 2001 ???? ? ???; ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ???. ? 2002 ???? ????????????? 188 ????? ???? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ????? ????????????? ??? ???????, ??? ?????????, ?????????? ????? 2006 ???? ? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????-???????? ????????? Visa Waiver, ?????? ???? ???????????????.

??????? ???

?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ???????, ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????. ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ???????. ?? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ? ??? ??????????.

?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???, ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ? ?? ??????, ??????? ??? ??????? ? ???????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?? ?????????, ??????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????, ??? ? ??????????? ????????.

???????????? ??????????????? ????????

??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ?? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????, ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????. ????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ????, ???????????? ???????, ? ??????????? ???????. ?????? ?? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????.

????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????, ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????, ?????????? ? ???????? (?????????? ????, ????????? ??????? ? ??????) ????????? ??????????. ????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????????.

????? ????, ? 1 ????? 2010 ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? 10 ???. ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? 5 ???.

??????????? ??????????????? ????????

?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????, ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????. ? ????????? ????? ???? ? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???? (???, ??????????????, ??????, ???????? ? ??? ????? ?????????) ???????? ????? ??? ?? ???????????????, ??? ? ???????? ????????. ? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????-???? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ???.

1358956340_1357841551??????????

??? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ISO14443. ??????????? ?????????? RFID-????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ISO7816 ? USB, ?????? ? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ??????????????? ?????????.

?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? (????????, JCOP). ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? GlobalPlatform?(????.) ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ICAO.

????????

????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ? 2008 ???? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? (Jeroen van Beek) ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????. ?? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????. ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????-????????? ???? ??????? (Hiba Darghmeh). ?????????, ??????????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????.

?? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?The Times? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??? ??????. ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????? Golden Reader, ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????. ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????????, ??????????? ? ??????????????, ???????? ? ????? ????????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ? ????, ????? ?????????????? ?? ? ???????? ????? ????????. ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????: ??? ???? ????????????? ??? ????, ????????? ??????? ?????????? 20 ????????, ? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? 80 ????????.

???????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????. ?? ????????? ?The Times?, ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????????, ????? ?? ? ???? ?? ???????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????. ????????? ??????? ???????? ??, ??? ? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? 3000 ?????????, ??????? ? ????, ????? ? ??? ???????? ???. ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????, ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????. ?????? ???????????? ??? ???? ??????????, ??? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????????.

?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????????? ????????. ? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????, ?????????, ?????????? ? ?????????????, ????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ? ????, ????????? ???????? ????, ????? ?????????? ? ??? ????????. ???????, ??? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???? ????? ????????????? ??, ????????? ??????????? ???????? ????, ? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ? ???. ????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????, ? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??-?? ?????????? ???????.

?????? ?? ????????

? ???? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ?? ??????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???? ? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????. ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?? 45 ?????, ???????? ?????????????? ????????.

????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????

biometric -1?? ?????? ??????, ? ??? ????? ????????????, ????????? ? ??????????, ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????. ?.??.?????????? ? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? , ?? ??? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????, ?? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????:

??????? ????? ????????? ???, ??? ?? ????? ?????? ? ????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ????????????, ????????????? ????? ????? ???, ??? ?? ??????, ??? ???? ?????? ? ??? ?????? ???. ?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????. ??? ???????????? ????????, ? ??? ??? ?????????? ????????.

?????? ????????????? ????????, ?? ????? ????? ?? ???????????, ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????, ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ??? ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?? ????? ??????.

?????? ???????, ?????? ????-????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ????, ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????

???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????????. ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ??????. ? ??? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???? 5-????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????. ???, ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????, ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ?? ?????????. ????? ???????, ? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????. ? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????, ??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????????. ??? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ? ??? ??????????????????. ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?, ??? ???????, ????? ?? ? ?????. ???????, ?????? ????? ???????????, ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????. ??? ?????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????.

4 ??????? 2013 ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ? ??????? ???????:

?????????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????, ???????, ???????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????????, ????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ?????. ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ? ??????????????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???? ??????, ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????, ? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????.?

?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????????, ????????? ? ?? ???????????, ????? ?????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ? ???, ? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?, ??? ?????????????, ??????????? ?????.?

????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???, ??????????????, ?????????, ????? ????????, ??????, ????? ?????, ???, ?????????, ????????, ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ??. ???????, ??? ? ??????, ?????????, ???????, ????, ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?-??????????. ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????.

? 1 ?????? ??????? ? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????????. ?? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? ? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? 10 ???.