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????????, ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????, ???? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????. ? ????????? ?????, ??? ? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????. ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????? ????? – ?? ???? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????????…
?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? – ???-?? ? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ???-?? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????… ? ????????? ?????? ??. ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ????? ?????, ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????, ?????? ?????????, ??????????, ?????? ????… ????????, ?????????, ???????, ?????? ? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ????????? ????, ?? ???? ? ??? ??????????? ????? ????. ???, ??? ????? ????????? ????????, ????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????

??????, ??? ??? ????????, ????????? ?????? ? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ? ???????????, ?? ? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????. ???? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????: ????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????? ? ???? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????.

???? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ? ????? ???? “?????? ?????????????”, ??????? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ??? ??????, ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ???? “??????? ??????? ? ??????????”. ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? (??? ????????????????) ???????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????. ?? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???, ??? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ????????? ????????, ? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????, ? ??????? ???????, ? ???? ??????.

?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???????: ????????-????????????, ??????????????, ????????????. ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ????????? ??????, ? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????, ? ???? ???????? ??????????, ? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????????????, ? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ? ??????????… ?? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?????? (??. ?? ???? ? ????? ????? “?????? ??????? ?????????”).

???????? ???? ???????????? ?????????: ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?? ????????? ? ????????, ???????????????, ????? ??????? ?????????.

????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????

??????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????, ????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ? ??????? 1???????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????? (??? ??????????), ??????????? ?????????? ???????. ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????????, ??. ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?? 7/20 ?????? 1920 ?. ?? ? 362, ???????? ???????? ????? ?????, ????????? ?? ?????. ??? ???????: ???? ?????-???? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?. ?. ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ????????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????; ??? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????.

?? 1926 ?. ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????; ? 1935-1946 ????, ? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? – 95% ???? ???????? ????????? (????? 1000). ?? 1940-? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ???????. ????? ?????, ? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????, ?? ??????????? ??-???????? ?????? ????????; ? ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????????? ????? ???????, ????????, ? ????????????? ????????????.
????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? (?????? ? ???-?????). ????? ???????? ? ????? ?? ?. – ????? 150.000; ?? ???? ??????????? ??????? 330 ???????? ? 24 ?????????, ? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????.

???????????????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ????? ????????? ????. ???? ??????????? ??? ????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? – ? ????????????, ???????? ? ???????. ???????? ????????? ??? ??.-???????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????. ??? ?????? ????????????????? ?? ?????? (??????????? ??????????? ??????????) ???? ??????? ???????? “???????????? ????”.

???????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????: “???????????? ????” (????????-???????????? ??????, ??????? ??? ???? ? ????? ? ??????????? ??????????? “???????????? ?????”), “????????? ?????” (??? ? ??? ??????) ? “???????????? ????” (???????????-??????????? ?????????). ??????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????, ????? ? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????.

?? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?????, ????? ??????? ????. ??????? (????????????, 1863-1936), ??????????? ????????? (?????????????, 1873-1965), ???????????? ??????? (????????, 1873-1940), ???????????? ??????? (???????, 1906-1976), ???????????? ??????????? (???????, 1887-1975), ???????????? ???????? (????????, 1881-1950), ?????????? ???????? (?????, 1934-1982), ??????????????? ??????? ???????????? (1888-1988), ???????? ???????? (??????), ????. ?.?. ????????, ????. ?.?. ????????? (1886?1969); ? ?????-?? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?.?. ????? (1883-1954) – ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????. ? ????? ????????????? ?????? – ??????? ???? ????-???????? (??????????, 1888-1925; ??????????? ??? ????????? ? ?????) ? ??????????? ????? (??????????, 1896-1966), ??? ????? ? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????.

? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????, ????????? ? 1921 ?. ?? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? (???????) ??? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????. ???????? ??? ?????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????. ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????, ??????, ????????? ???????, ????????? ????????????????? ???? ????????? ??. ???? ?????????????? (1906-2001), ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? (??? ?????? ????? ??????????: ? ????????? ??? 2000 ?. ?? ??????? ????? ? ? ????? ????? ?? ???? ? ???????????…).

?????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ???????? ? ??????, ????????? ??? ????????????, ? ??? ?????: ??. ?????? ?????????????? (1964), ????. ??????? ???????????? (1970), ??. ????. ?????? ????????????? (1978), ????. ?????? ????????????? (1982), ???. ????????? ??????? (1990) ? ??; ?????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ? 1981 ?. ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? (???????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ? 1918 ?.).

? 1982 ?., ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? (??????????) ? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? (????????) ? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????? ???? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????. ? 1990 ?. ? ?????????? ??????? ???. ???? ???????????, ??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????, ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????.

??????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????, ????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????. ??????? (????????). ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????, ????????? ? ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????. ? ?????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????. ?? ?????? ?????? ????????; ????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????. ????????, ?. ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???:

?????? ???????? [? ????????], ???? ???? ??????? ????? ? ???, ????????? ????????, ???????? ??? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????, ?????? ??????? ?????… ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ? ???????: ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ?????????????, ? ??????????… ??????? ? ???, ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ????????, ????????? ? ?????? ? ?? ???? ? ??? ???????????? – ?????????? ? ???? ?????????. ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????, ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????. ???????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? (???????: ??????? ? ?????????). ??????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ????. ? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ???????????, ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????, ???? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????

???????, ???????? ???????? ?????? “???????????” ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????. ???????, ??????, ????????, ??? “????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????”, ?????????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????. ????????? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ??? “??????????? ????????????”. ???? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????: ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????, – ????????? ??????????? ????. – ?????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????, ?.?. ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ???? ???. ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????. ?, ???????, ?????????? ???? ???? ? ??? ???????: ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ? ????????. ? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????. ????????, ?? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????. ?? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????…?…

??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????, ? ???????????????????? ??????????????? ??????, ? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????. ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? “????????????-??????????” ?? “????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????” ??????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ???? ????????, ??? ? ???? ????? “??????”, ?????????? ??????? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ?? ????????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????????. ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???????????? ? 2000 ?. ? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? (??? ??????????? ?? ???? ?? ????), ?? ? ? ??????? ??. ????? ???????, ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????.

? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? (??????? ???????, ??????????, ????????? ? ??.) ? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? 4 ???????? ? ????? 100 ????????. ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ? ??????????? (???) ??????? “???????????? ????” ? “???????????? ?????”, ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??, ? ????????? ? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????. ??? ??????? ? ?. ????????? (“??????? ????????”) ??????? ???????? ??? ? ???????? ????? ????. ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ??????: “???????????” (?.-?????????), “???????????? ?????????” (?.-?????????), “??????? ?.?.?.” (??????); ? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? “????????? ???????” ? ???????? “??????? ????” (??????? ?????).