????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? “????? ???? ??????” – 2-28 ????????


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2 ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? “????? ???? ??????” ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????. ??? ??????? ? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????, ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????, ??? ? ???????. ? ?????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????. ????? ????????, ??? ?????, ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ? ?????? ????? ???? ?????.

?????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????????. ???????? ??? ?????? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ? 1749 ????. ???????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ? 1754 ???? ? ??????? ????? ? ???? ????????????.

 

??????? ?????? ???? ???????????????? ? ????? ????? ???? (????.?commedia dell’arte), ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? (??????????) ??????, ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????, ?? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????????, ? ???????? ???????, ?????? ? ?????. ? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??? la commedia a soggetto (????????? ?????), la commedia all?improvviso (????? ????????????) ??? la commedia degli zanni (??????? ??????).

????? ?????????????? ? ???????? XVI ?? ????? XVIII ?????, ?????? ??? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ??????. ??????, ???????? ??????? ?????, ???? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? (?????? ??????? ???? ????, ??? ???????? ?????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????) ? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? (??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ???????????, ????.?capocomico).

? XIX ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????. ? XX ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????, ? ????? ????????? ???? ???? ? ????-??? ?????, ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????.

??????? tipi fissi, ? ??????? ???? ? ?? ?? ????????? (?????) ????????? ? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, ? ????????? ?????????????? ? stand-up comedy.

???????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????:

  • ????????, ?????-?????;
  • ??????????, ?????????? ?????, ????;
  • ????????, ?????? ??????, ????? ?????;
  • ??????????? (??????????), ?????? ??????, ?????? ?????;
  • ????????? ?????????? ?????, ????, ???????? ?????? ????? ??????????;
  • ????? (?????, ??????, ?????, ?????? ???.??.), ???? ??????????;
  • ???????? (?????, ???????, ???????? ???.??.), ???? ??????????; ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ???????? ??? ????;
  • ?????????, ????????, ????????, ??????????? ???.??.,?? ????????.

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? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ? 1733 ????. ??? ????? ?????????? ???????, ? ? ????? XVIII ???? ? ?????????? ? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????. ? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ???????, ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ? ????? ??????.

????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ? ?????? XX ????, ????? ? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????. ? 1906 ???? ?.??.????? ??????? ????? ????????????, ??? ? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ???????. ? 1906 ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?.??.??????????? ? ?????? ?.??.????????????????, ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?????. ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ? 1910 ???? ?????????? ????????-????????? ????? ??????????. ?? ?????? ????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????. ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?.??.??????? (????????? ?????????? ?????????, 1916). ???????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????, ???????????? ?.??.???????????? ? 1922 ???? ? ??????? ?????? ??? ? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ???.

???? ???????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? “????? ???? ??????” ?? ?????????? ?????? “??????????? ?? ???????”.

???????? ?????????? ? ??????? XVIII ????. ???? ????????????, ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????. ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????, ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ???? ????? ? ???????.

??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??? ????????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????? ? ???, ??? ?????? ??????? ????. ?????? ??? ? ????????? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ???, ????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????. ????? ????? ??????, ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??????, ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ? ? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ????????????? ? ???? ?? ?????????, ? ?????????? ????????? ???? ???????????, ?? ?????? ??????? ???????, ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????. ?? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????.

????????? ?????, ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???????????, ??? ????????????, ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????, ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ???. ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???, ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????????. ?? ??? ????, ???????, ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????.

? ????? ??? ????????? ????????????. ???????? ?????????????? ? ????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ???????, ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????, ???????????.

?????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ? ??????? ????? ???????: ??????? ???? ??????. ???????? ???????? (??????? ? ?????? 1970-? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????) ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????. ??????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????, ??? ?????? ? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????. ?????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????????, ??????? ??????? ? ???? ? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????. ?? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????.

??? ????????? ??????, ??? ? ????? ?????, ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????: ??? ???????????? ??????? ????? (?????? ?????? ????????, ?????? ?????? ????????????, ?????? ????????, ?????????), ??? ???? ?????????? (???????? ? ????????, ??????? ? ???????), ??????? ? ???????-?????? ???????????.

??????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????? ? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????.