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?? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????. ?? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????? 2,0 ????. ????????. ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ? ?????????. ? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????. ???????? (?????? ?? 2006 ???). ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?? 2020 ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ???? ??????? ? ??? ????. ? ????? ? ???? ???, ????????? ??? ? 2030 ????. ??????? ???????? ???????????, ??? ?????????????, ?????? ?????? ????? ? ???? ??????????????,? ? ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????. ??????????? ??? ???, ??? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????. ????????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? 2/3 ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ?? ? 1/5 ???????????????? ?????. ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?????????, ?? ??? ? ?????? ????????. ????? ?? ?????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????.

11111111????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????. ? ????????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????, ???????????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??????????????, ????????? ? ?????? ?????????.
??????? – ??? “????????????” ?????, ??????? ?? ????? 350 ??? ???. ???????? ??? ?? ???????, ? ????????? ??, ????????, ? ?.?. ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??? ? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????????. ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ? 1947 ???? ? 20 ?? ?? ?? ?? ?????????. ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ???? ? ????????.

??????? – ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????? – Tar Sand. ????? ??? (?????? ??????? ???? ) ???????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? 82 %. ??????? ?? – ????? 125 ???. ???. ???????? ??? ?? ???????? 50- 500 ??????. ?????? ? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ??????????? ? 1.6 ????????? ??????? (1 ???????? ?????? = 160 ?) ??? 250 ???.k? , ?? ??????? ????? 200 ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????????. ??, ??? ????????, ????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????. ? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? 1.6 ???????? ??????? ????? ? ????.
?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? 140 ???. ??.??. ????????? ??? ?? ??? ????????????? (??. ?????), ???????????? ??????????? ??????, ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????. ?????????? ?? ??? – ???????? (???????? ????, ??????????? ? ???? ??????) ???, ??????????, Tar Sand, ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? – ??????? Fort McMurrey.

?????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ???-???? ??? ?? ??????

??????? ???????

??, ????? ????? ? ?????????????? ? ?????-?? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????.
? ???????????? ??? ? ??????? ???????, ?????????????? 130 – 120 ???.??? ???? ?????. ? ?? ????? ?????? ????????, ???????, ??? ? ???? ???????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????. ????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ????. ? ??? ? ??? ???? ? ??????-??????? ??????? ???????? ????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????, ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? – ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????.
???????????? ????? – ???????, ?????, ????????, ????????? ????, ??????, ????????? ????? ? ?? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????. ? ?? ????, ? ???? ? ? ??????? ????? ????? – ????? ???????????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????, ? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????, ?????? ????????????. ??? ??? ?????????, ????? ? ???????, ? … ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ???.

? ???, ?? ?????????? ???, ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?????, ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?????. ? ????? ????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????. ?????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? 30 ????? ?? ????????. ?? ???? ????????????? – ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????????. ? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????. ? ???????? ??? ??? ? ????? 60? – ?????? 70? ????? ???????? ????????.

???, ??? ? ??? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????

imagesCAU5UVNI??? ??? ???? ??????? ????, ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????. ??? ???? ????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????, ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????. ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????. ?? ???????????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????. ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ????????, ????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ? ?? ??? ?? ??????. ? ?? “?????????” ??? ????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ?? ???? ?????-????????.

? ??? ? ???????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ????????????? TarSand. C???????? ??? ????????????? “Syncrude” ? “Suncor”, ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? – ? ???????? ????????. ???? ? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? 50-70 ?. ?? ????? ???? ???????. ? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???. ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????.

???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????, ????????????? ? ?????? ??????? – ??????????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ? ????????, ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ? ??. ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????, ?? ? ???????? ??????????. ???????, ?? ????????? ????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ?????.

???????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????, ?, ??? ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????????????? ???????. ???, ? ???????? ? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ???? ????????? ??????????????? ? 400 ? ? ????????? ? 3550 hp , ?????????? ????????? ? 935 hp, ???????? – ?? 265 hp, ????????? ??????????? – ????? ????? ??????? ????????? 100 ?. ?? ?? ???? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? – ? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????, ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????????????.

? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????. ?????? ? ???????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????. ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????.

imagesCAZ8MJX0???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????. ??? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????, ? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????. ???? ????????? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ?????. ?? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????????? ??-?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????????. ???, ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????? 100 ???. ????., ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????.

??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? Handelsblatt, ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????. ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?????. ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? 245 ???. ???? ?? ????????????? ????? ???????, ????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????. ??????????? ? ????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????, ???????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ????.

???????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????????. ????????, ??????????? ????? – ??? ???????? ??????????, ????????? ?? ?????, ?????, ???? ? ??????. ?? ???????? ?????? ? ???????, ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????. ??? ?????????? ???????, ? ????? Handelsblatt, ? ????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????? 179 ????. ????????. ??? ????? ??? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????.? ??????, ? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? 174 ????. ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????????. ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ???? ????? ????? ????, ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ?? ???????????. ??? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????.

???? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????

????? ???? ??? ? ??????? 1947 ???? ? ?????? ????? (????????? ????????) ???? ??????? ?????, ????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? ????????. ???? ????? ????, ??? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? ? 40?50 ????. ?? ???????, ????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????. ????? ????????, ??? Petro Canada, Shell, Exxon ? Texaco, ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????.

?? ?????? Handelsblatt, ? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? 2,5 ???. ???????? ????? ? 1,3 ???. ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? 1,3 ???. ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????. ? 2020 ???? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? 4?5 ???. ???????? ?????????. ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? 3,3 ???. ???????? ?? 4 ???. ????????. ????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????????? (CAPP). ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????, ??? ? 2015 ???? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ? 94 ????. ????????? ????????.

?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????. ???, ??????????? Wold Wide Fund for Naturre (WWF) ???????? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ???????????? ????? ? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????. ? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????, ??? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????.

?? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????

???????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????????, ????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????. ??????? ????? ????? ? ???, ??? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ??? ????? ????? ? ????? ?????.

? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? 300 ????? ???????. 75% ?? ??? ???????? ? ????????, ???????, ?????? ??????, ??????????? ? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??-?? ???????. ? ??? ?????? ?????????????. ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???? ? ??????? ???????????? ? ??? 16,73 ????., ????? ??? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??? 30,36 ????.

imagesCA2I5B25? ???? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????????????. ? ???? ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????, ? ??? ????? ? ?? ?????, ??????????? ????? ???, ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????. ???? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??? ????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????????. ??? ???, ??? ??????? ??????????????????, ????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????.

?? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????. ? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????, ??????????? ???? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ????????????? ???? ????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????. ???? ????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????. ?????? ???????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????. ? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? 18 ?? 23 ????. ??????????? ????? Citibank ??????? ?? ????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????, ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ???? 40 ????. ??? ?? ???????.

? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ??? ? ??????? ????? ?????????????. ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????????????. ??? ?????????, ??? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????????. ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? 30 ? ????? ???. ????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????, ??? ???????, ?? ??????.

?????? ????????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????. ???????? Total ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????? ?? 15 ????. ????????? ????????. ?????????? ????? Statoil ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? 2 ????. ????. ???. ???????????? ????? Shell, Exxon, Chevron ? ??????. ?????????, ??? ?????? ? 2020 ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ? ??????.

??????????? ???? ????????, ????????? ? ?????????, ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????????. ????????? ?????????????, ??? ????????, ????????? ????????? ??? ???????. ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? 2% ? ???. ????, ??????, ??? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ???????. ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????, ????????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ??????????.